Archive for the ‘Uncategorized’ Category

11/23/2020 No comments
Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

Modern Authentication process flow:

02/26/2020 No comments
  1. Client (Outlook) sends a request to Exchange Online (EXO) to access the mailbox and download data.
  2. Next EXO request that the client authenticates to Azure AD.
  3. Azure informs EXO that the user domain is federated and provides the Auth url for EXO to authenticate with the IDP, based off the root domain of the user.
    1. For example authenticates to
  4. ADFS then communicates with your domain controller to authenticate the user account.
  5. The DC successfully authenticates the user, and sends the information back to ADFS.
  6. ADFS then sends the authenticated user token back to the client.
  7. The user’s client (Outlook 2016, Outlook 2013, Outlook app,etc) then goes Azure AD with the token, to authenticate, and upon a successful authentication is provided with Access and Refresh tokens that can be used for subsequent logins.
  8. The client then takes those access tokens and provide them to Exchange Online so it can access the user data.
Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

[PS] Write-host and tips

05/10/2019 No comments

Write-host  (Alias: write)

Example for foreground color and background color:

Write-host “text” -ForegroundColor red -Background Color white


  • Using foreground and background will break a variable writing stored

Powershell has a built in color scheme


Write-warning (yellow on black)
Write-error (red on black)



Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

[EXO] Enabling Mailbox on Exchange Online Hybrid Configuration (ADFS)

04/16/2019 No comments

Enabling/Creating a Mailbox on Exchange Online in a Hybrid Configuration (ADFS)


  • Retention policy must be applied on the Exchange Online instead of against the on-premises AD object.

Use the New-RemoteMailbox cmdlet to create a mail user in the on-premises AD and also create an associated mailbox in Exchange Online.

Enable-Remote Mailbox is for an existing AD user.

  • remoteRoutingAddress needs to be specified to point to cloud
  • Forwarding would be set on the cloud mailbox using the cloud connection


Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

[CMD] Add persistent route

01/25/2019 No comments

show ipv4 route
netsh interface ipv4 show route

id idx (interface)
route print

add persistent route, bind to interface
route -p add mask if

registry key
HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Services\Tcpip \Parameters\PersistentRoutes

Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

[TIP] Trouble shooting port 25 smtp in LINUX

01/11/2019 No comments

Troubleshooting Linux e-mail issues.

netstat :

netstat -a | more
shows all listening ports of tcp and udp connections

netstat -at
shows all listening ports connected

netstat -plnt | grep ‘:25’
ss :

ss -lntu | grep ‘:25’
nmap :

nmap -sT -O localhost | grep 25

lsof -i:25

telnet 25

Categories: Uncategorized Tags:

[PS] Convert mailcontact email address and remove old.

10/30/2018 No comments